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                                            文章详情
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                                            提高化?#19990;?#29992;率的有效措施
                                            更新日期:2010-08-24 17:42:00点击量:

                                              化?#39318;?#20026;提高作物产量的一个重要因素,已被广大农民所认识,但是近几年随着化肥投入量的不断增加,化肥的增产效果却越来越不明显,人们发现化肥不那么“灵”了。那么是什么原因降低了化肥的增产效果?提高?#24066;?#26377;何措施呢?现分析、介绍如下: 
                                              一、影响?#24066;?#30340;主要原因 
                                              1、施肥结构不合理,氮、磷、钾比例失调。目前,有些农民?#22253;?#20256;统的经验施肥,存在着严重的盲目性和随机性。?#29575;?#32933;量虽加大,产量却不增加,造成?#25628;?#37325;的浪费。 
                                              2、施肥方法不科学。农民们往往注重底肥的施入,很少进行追肥,这不仅降低了肥料利用率,而?#19968;?#20351;作物生长后期出现脱肥现象,影响作物的产量;种肥?#29615;鄭?#26045;肥深度过浅也是化?#19990;?#29992;率过低的一个重要原因,大多数农民在给作物追肥时仍采用人工撒施再起垅掩埋的办法,这?#36136;?#32933;方法虽然省工省力,但极易造成化肥的挥发和淋失,降低了化?#19990;?#29992;?#30465;?nbsp;
                                              3、微量元素没有得到应有的重视。由于土壤中的微量元素长期得不到补充,其含量已不能满足作物的生长需要,根据土肥的“同等重要律和最小养分律”学说,即使氮、磷、钾的施入比例合理?#19981;?#24433;响作物的产量。 
                                              二、提高化?#19990;?#29992;率的有效途径 
                                              化肥的投入量和利用率是农业现代化的重要标志之一,目前我国的化?#19990;?#29992;率只有35%,与发达国家相比低一倍。那么怎么才能提高化?#19990;?#29992;率呢? 
                                              1、大力推广配方施肥技术。根据作物的需肥规律、土壤测试结果以及肥料的利用率,调整氮、磷、钾和微量元素的合理用量和比例,使作物得到全面合理的养分供应,最大限度地发挥作物的增产潜力、提高经济效益。 中国黄金投资网
                                              2、全面改进施肥方法。根据作物的需肥规律,在作物生长的各个阶段合理?#21046;?#26045;肥,?#26376;?#36275;作物整个生育期的养分供应,?#28304;?#21040;经济施肥的目的;另外,要大力提倡深施肥,通过深施,最大限度地减少肥料的损失。 
                                              3、化肥有机肥配合施用。有机肥中除含有氮、磷、钾和各种微量元素以外?#36141;?#26377;大量的有益微生物和有机胶体。它砂但具有改土保肥等重要作用,而?#19968;?#21487;弥补单施化肥所造成的养分单一、易被土壤固定和易淋失的缺点,达到减少化肥损失,有利提高化?#19990;?#29992;?#30465;?nbsp;
                                              4、其它有效措施 
                                              ①看?#37327;?#33495;施?#30465;?#22914;:砂性土壤,因漏水潜心肥严重,应采用“少吃多餐,苗弱多施、苗旺土肥少施”的施肥方法。 
                                              ②铵态氮化?#26159;?#21247;与碱?#33489;?#26009;混施。草木灰、石灰、窑灰钾等碱?#33489;?#26009;不可与硫酸铵、氯化铵、液氨等铵态氮化肥混合施用,否则,混合后会引起氨的挥发损失。 
                                              ③尿素不宜在大雨前施用,否则,尿素很容易随水流失而降低?#24066;А?/p>

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                                                                                      湖北快三

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